Diabetes

DIABETES

(Also called Blood sugar / Urine Sugar / Madhumeha)

diabetes

WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS?

It is a disorder where insulin (blood sugar  regulator) is either not produced, not produced in sufficient quantity or not used properly, leading to high blood sugar levels in the body. What we need to understand is that, this high blood sugar levels have an impact on the whole body and leads to other problems, if it is not controlled rightly.

WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS?

There are different types of diabetes.

TYPE 1 DIABETES

It occurs most commonly in children and young adults. Only 5% of people with diabetes have Type 1 Diabetes. Here, the body produces little or no insulin. The condition is treated with insulin alone, oral drugs are not helpful. It occurs most commonly due to certain antibodies that are produced against the pancreas.

TYPE 2 DIABETES

It used to be a disease of the older age group, but not anymore. More and more young adults are being diagnosed with this type of diabetes. It is the most common form of Diabetes. Here, the insulin that is produced, is not effective or not enough to control the blood sugar levels in the body.  This occurs due to the gradual reduction in functionality of the endocrine pancreas, the organ that produces insulin.

GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

Diabetes that occurs during pregnancy is called Gestational Diabetes. Diet control and Exercise are the first line of treatment. If not controlled, it requires treatment with insulin and it usually disappears after delivery. But this signals the risk of future diabetes and one should take all measures to prevent it.

OTHER TYPES OF DIABETES

  • Genetic defects of β-cell function
  • Genetic defects in insulin action
  • Diseases of the exocrine pancreas
  • Endocrinopathies
  • Drug- or chemical-induced
  • Infections
  • Uncommon forms of immune-mediated diabetes
  • Other genetic syndromes sometimes associated with diabetes

These are the types of diabetes that occur due to genetic conditions or other conditions that lead to diabetes. These are relatively less common.

HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOU HAVE DIABETES?

diabetsThere are a few symptoms that people commonly experience. Some of these are:

  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Increased frequency of urination, especially at night
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Increased hunger
  • Blurring of vision
  • Irritability
  • Tingling/numbness/burning sensation in the feet and hands
  • Fatigue/tiredness
  • Frequent infections
  • Wounds that don’t heal

But with Type 2 diabetes, there may not be any symptoms at all. People can have diabetes for months or years without knowing that they have it.  One in two adults with diabetes do not know that they have it. That is why it is important to get your blood sugars checked regularly.

d1There are three major attitudes of people towards diabetes:

  1. The “I DON’T CARE”ATTITUDE:
    Diabetes is a condition that does not cause any aches or pains directly. Because of this, people tend to neglect the disease. They eat what they want, they don’t do any exercise and their blood sugar levels are usually high.
  2. The “OMG, I HAVE DIABETES!’’ ATTITUDE:
    Some react exactly opposite to the above. They are over cautious, extremely careful about what they eat, have a perfect exercise regime but are stressed with the fact that they have diabetes.
  3. The “I HAVE DIABETES AND I NEED TO TAKE CARE”ATTITUDE:
    This is seldom seen among our population. This is the right kind of attitude everybody should have. Diabetes is a simple metabolic disorder, but at the same time if it is not controlled for a long period of time, can lead to complications. One should do their best to control it but not worry too much.

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DIABETES CAN LEAD TO VARIOUS HEALTH PROBLEMS WHEN NOT CONTROLLED!

Diabetes can affect different parts of the body and most of the times, the damage caused is irreversible. It can affect some of the most vital organs – the heart, the brain and the kidney. Diabetes can lead to stroke and heart attack. People with diabetes carry a risk of amputation that may be more that 25 times greater than that of people without diabetes. It can affect the eye leading to blindness.

WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT IT?

There are a lot of things you can do to prevent or control diabetes. Most important of all are: regularly exercising, following the diet as recommended, reducing the stress and taking medications as prescribed.